Ben, some great food for thought here. I like the idea of a framework with the ability to adapt. I'm definitely going to borrow this.
If your example mentioning accounting coursework is more than an example, you could probably (quickly) get a lot out of a standard textbook on "Financial Accounting" which is typically a cornerstone course in any MBA program. The basics don't change much, so almost any used text in the past twenty years will give you what you're looking for. There are also many free/inexpensive online courses (coursera, edX, etc.) if you search for MOOC and financial accounting.